Trade Liberalization, Industrialization and Development: Experience of recent decades Mehdi Shafaeddin

The author argues that trade liberalization is necessary for industrialization provided it is part and parcel of a dynamic and flexible trade and industrial policies; undertaken at the right time, gradually and selectively. In contrast, undertaken, pre-maturely, rapidly and uniformly across-the-board, it will lock the country into specializing in production and exports of primary commodities natural resource-based products, and/or labour-intensive stage of assembly operation, eventually resulting in de-industrialisation and unemployment. trade_liberalization (Download the full text in PDF format)

Protecting Salaries of Frontline Teachers and Health Workers UNICEF

The roles of frontline teachers and health providers are crucial for social development of children in poor countries, be it in rural areas or urban slums. However, as in previous post crisis recovery processes, the period has witnessed a decrease in the salaries of frontline teachers and health workers in real terms. The salaries need to be protected to ensure continuation of these essential services to society. protecting_salaries (Download the full text in PDF format)

Socialism and Welfarism Prabhat Patnaik

Socialism consists not just in building a humane society; it consists not just in the maintenance of full employment (or near full employment together with sufficient unemployment benefits); it consists not just in the creation of a Welfare State, even one that takes care of its citizens "from the cradle to the grave"; it consists not just in the enshrining of the egalitarian ideal. It is of course all this; but it is also something more. Its concern, as Engels had pointed out in Anti-Duhring, is with human freedom, with the change in the role of the people from being…

Globalisation and Health, 1980-2000: Pathways of impact and initial evidence Giovanni Andrea Cornia, Stefano Rosignoli & Luca Tiberti

This paper tries to shed light on the relation between globalisation policies and health and argues that globalization policies contributed – through different pathways - to a slowdown in the pace of improvement of the social determinants of health. This caused, in turn, a corresponding deceleration (relative to the 1960-80 trends) in health gains in several regions and also globally. The authors, though not claiming to provide a final conclusion, argue that there is strong enough case to believe that the unsatisfactory health trends of the Globalization Era is related to a premature and acritical application of liberalisation-globalisation policies. globalisation…

Public Research Universities in Latin America and their Relation to Economic Development Juan Carlos Moreno-Bridand Pablo Ruiz-Nápoles

This paper argues that strengthening Latin Americas´ public universities, and in general institutions of higher learning and research, is a key requirement to build the competitive productive structure that may trigger and sustain a long-term economic expansion. Without it Latin America will not keep pace with advances in science and technology, and have the capacity to adapt them to finally succeed in its yet quest for economic development. The paper explores the channels through which public research universities favor economic growth in Latin America, and how this system can be widened, made more efficient, and effectively used in the promotion…

Renegotiating the Social Contract Challenges to Health and Social Policy in Japan Chan Chee Khoon

Japan, which has been well known for its high health indicators in spite of relatively low health expenditure, is now witnessing a significant change in this pattern. The health indicators of the younger generations, most evident in high smoking and suicide rates, are much worse than the older generations. Health care expenditure, the author argues, is weakly related to health indicators while other factors such as these play a much more significant role in its determination. The earlier pattern was generally attributable to diet, physical activity, lesser social disparity, and a relatively homogeneous and inclusive society but modern Japan, along…

A Vision for South Asia Akmal Hussain

South Asia is likely to play a key role in the global economy in this century. In doing so, the people of this region could contribute to addressing the challenges of poverty, peace and environmental degradation that confront the world. This article attempts to articulate a vision for South Asia in the new world that is taking shape. vision_south_asia (Download the full text in PDF format)

Why MES with Human Rights? Integrating Macro Economic Strategies with Human Rights Radhika Balakrishnan

This report documents a discussion between economists and human rights activists on the problems of poor people, a topic distinctly different from and larger than the question poverty reduction alone. This report is part of a strategy to explore the theoretical and policy dimensions of the following topics: trade policy and human rights violations, “neoliberal” economic policies and the progressive realization of human rights, informal sector labor and the right to livelihood, monitoring national budgets and the role of the state. human_rights (Download the full text in PDF format)

The Pace and Distribution of Health Improvements During the last 40 years: Some preliminary results Giovanni Andrea Cornia and Leonardo Menchini

The paper attempts to relate income growth and distribution with mortality changes across and within countries over the last forty years. It shows that in the 1990s the pace of health improvement was slower than that recorded during the prior decades. In addition, the distribution between countries of aggregate health improvements became markedly more skewed and a frequent divergence over time in the within-country distribution of gains in 21 developing countries. The trends are partly explained by Sub-Saharan Africa and Eastern Europe, but holds otherwise too. Preliminary results show similarities and linkages between changes in income inequality and health inequality.…

The Republic of Hunger Utsa Patnaik

India has seen a steep and unprecedented fall in per capita foodgrains absorption in the course of the last five years (1998 to 2003). This has lead to a sharp increase in the numbers of people in hunger, particularly in rural areas. Meanwhile, a worsening situation is being interpreted as betterment because, as this paper argues, the diagnosis of the problem of hunger itself is incorrect. Thus, no remedial measures can be expected of the policy advisers and the rulers of this country which was once a developing economy, but which has been turned into the Republic of Hunger. republic_hunger…